Some References

This list is by no means comprehensive but it should provide you with a starting point for finding out more information on:

Census Data and Methods of Classification

Bezdek J., Ehrlich, R. and Full, W. 1984. FCM: the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, Computers and Geosciences, 10, 191-203.

Blake, M. and Openshaw, S. 1995. Selecting variables for small area classifications of 1991 UK census data, Working Paper 95/5, School of Geography, University of Leeds.

Openshaw, S. 1995. Census User's Handbook, GeoInformation International, Cambridge.

Openshaw, S. and Turton, I. 1996. A parallel Kohonen algorithm for the classification of large spatial data sets, Computers and Geosciences, 22, 1019-1026.

Openshaw, S., Blake, M. and Wymer, C. 1995. Using neurocomputing methods to classify Britain's residential areas. In Fisher, P. (ed.) Innovations in GIS 2, Taylor & Francis, London, p 97-111.


Beaumont, J.R. and Inglis, K. 1989. Geodemographics in practice: developments in Britain and Europe, Environment and Planning A, 21, 587-604.

Birkin, M. 1995. Customer targeting, geodemographics and lifestyle approaches. In Longley, P. and Clarke, G. (eds.) GIS for Business and Service Planning, GeoInformation International, Cambridge, p 104-149.

Brown, P.J.B. 1991. Exploring geodemographics. In Masser, I. and Blakemore, M. (eds.) Handling Geographical Information, Longman Group UK Limited, Avon, p 221-258.

Sleight, P. 1997. Targeting Customers. How to use Geodemographics and Lifestyle Data in Your Business, Second Edition, NTC Publications Limited, Henley-on-Thames.

Fuzzy Geodemographics

Feng, Z. and Flowerdew, R. 1998a. Fuzzy geodemographics: a contribution from fuzzy clustering methods. In Carver, S. (ed.) Innovations in GIS 5, Taylor & Francis, London, p 119-127.

Feng, Z. and Flowerdew, R. 1998b. The advantages of using fuzzy classification systems in geodemographic targeting. Paper presented at the Business Meets Academia Seminar, Market Research Society Census Interest Group, London, 27 May 1998.

Openshaw, S. 1989b. Making geodemographics more sophisticated, Journal of the Market Research Society, 31, 111-131.

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